The culottes The culottes The culottes

The culottes

When I was about seven years old, I remember my late aunt buying me a pair of wide legged shorts, which at the time were called Bermuda shorts. In the fashion language, we call these culottes and they are a big style trend right now.

The culottes are a good way to show off how fashionable you can be, without opting for skin tight pieces. In fact, you will discover that this item is way more comfortable than the skinny jeans.

The culottes are normally flared and are best worn at the mid-calf.
I don’t know about you, but I personally love a fashion piece that I can fit into a number of looks. This is exactly what the culottes do. You can wear them with a pair of air max sneakers, then you can change this and put on a pair of heels and a cute clutch to this for an evening cocktail.

Slim fit tops only

You need to know that there is nothing sexy about having a buggy outfit, so I suggest you wear your culottes with a tight fitting top, so that the look balances out. You can add a tailored blazer to it for a good finish.

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  • How Does The Body React To Lack Of Sleep?

    Adults (aged 26-64 years) need at least 7-9 hrs of sleep daily. Sleep deprivation of 18-24 hrs slows down mental and physical responses, and impairs cognition. Not sleeping for more than 48 hrs sleep reduces the number of NK cells of the immune system and spikes BP. Pushing the limit even further induces hallucinations, pain, tremors, glucose intolerance, and disruption of senses. Lack of sleep is associated with dipping alertness, weakening cognitive performance, decreased brain function and activity, and poor attention. This can lower productivity at the workplace, endanger your well-being, and even become a safety hazard.

    How Much Should You Sleep?

    Going by the National Sleep Foundation’s recommendations for an adult between 26 and 64 years, 7 to 9 hours of sleep every day is a good goal. That said, you could get away with 6 hours of sleep, but no less. The average person needs to get some sleep every 17-18 hours. Any longer without sleep and your body starts to show signs of sleep deprivation.1

    The Progressive Decline

    To understand the ramifications of staying up that little bit longer, take a look at what happens to your body with each progressive hour of sleep lost.

    18–24 hours

    This kind of sleep deprivation is fairly common in some professions and even among single parents or working parents who are also primary caregivers for their family.

    Sleep deprivation causes a decline in vigilant attention. Your responses slow down, you tend to make errors, and you take longer to do tasks.2

    According to one study, subjects who had gone 17 to 19 hours without any sleep showed performance on tests not unlike those with blood alcohol levels of 0.05 percent. These sleep-deprived individuals responded as much as 50 percent slower on some tests. Their accuracy of responses also took a hit and was significantly worse than what is associated with people with blood alcohol content (BAC) of 0.05 percent. As the hours without sleep increased, the performance was closer to those with BAC of 0.1 percent.3 The researchers concluded that sleep is a biological necessity to ensure normal brain function, keep you alert, and maintain normal cognitive performance.4

    48 hours

    This kind of extended sleep deprivation is not usual for the average person. Those in emergency services or military forces, for instance, may have to go a few days without sleep.

    Longer periods of sleep deprivation are believed to impact the immune profile of the body, making you more susceptible to diseases. One study investigated this premise in subjects who went 48 hours without sleep. The body’s natural killer cells (a type of lymphocyte or white blood cell) that are a core part of the human immune system were found to be much lower. This decrease with 48 hours of sleep deprivation could be reversed when subjects went through recovery sleep. However, if this level of sleep loss is sustained for longer spells, it could have a bearing on the body’s ability to fight tumors and viruses

    With this kind of sleep deprivation, blood pressure and heart rate also rise, putting you at greater risk of a stroke. As one study showed, sleep deprivation causes the body’s diastolic blood pressure to increase and interfere with the autonomic nervous system’s regulation of the cardiovascular system.6

    Your body tries to compensate by indulging in microsleeps where it effectively “shuts down” for spells of up to a thirty seconds. After each microsleep you return to reality a bit disoriented. This is potentially dangerous if you are driving, handling heavy machinery or hazardous materials, or are in a job that puts people’s lives in your hands. It is impossible to avoid these microsleeps that occur on their own and cannot be consciously overridden by willpower or otherwise.7

    72 hours

    As time progresses, you will see issues with higher mental processes. Motivation becomes a challenge for many. Perception also gets hampered. Hallucinations are also experienced by some people after staying up three days. Others may create false memories in their minds. Your senses (smell, sight, and even touch) get impacted adversely. Tremors and physical aches and pains also start to set in. And all this in addition to the signs you would have seen after earlier stages of sleep deprivation!8

    How Far Can You Push It?

    Chronic deprivation messes with the glucose metabolism of the body. Getting under 6.5 hours of sleep every night on a sustained basis could cause your glucose tolerance to drop by 40 percent. Poor glucose tolerance puts you at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.Those with total sleep deprivation fare even worse as the glucose secretion pattern changes completely compared to those experiencing normal nocturnal sleep.9

    Deprivation also decreases energy expenditure and interferes with your appetite. Researchers found that people experiencing a regular lack of sleep have a higher body mass index (BMI) than those who get their complete recommended rest. Inadequate sleep causes changes to levels of hormones responsible for controlling hunger. Appetite-reducing leptin levels dropped, and appetite-stimulant ghrelin levels were higher in those who got less sleep. Losing that sleep may actually cause you to crave calorie-rich foods, sweets, carbs, and starchy food, putting you at risk of obesity.10

    Sleep deprivation on an ongoing basis can result in long-term ailments and metabolic disorders, costing you time, money, and your health. It may be well worth reorganizing your life so you don’t miss out on this vital restorative time for your body.




    East African Legislative Assembly, Arusha, Tanzania: February 4, 2016: EALA yesterday debated and approved the EAC Annual Report 2013/14. The Assembly meanwhile urged the Council of Ministers to ensure further improvements in future subsequent Reports and in all EAC documents by enhancing overall supervision and quality control. This measure is geared towards sustaining high standards in all outputs of the Community.

    The debate was preceded by tabling and debate of the Report of the Committee on General Purpose on the EAC Annual Report for 2013/2014.  The report of the GPC followed the consideration of the Annual Report for the year 2013/14.  The Committee Report presented by the Chairperson of the Committee on General Purpose, Hon Dr Odette Nyiramilimo urges the Council of Ministers to make follow up on actions with intention to amend, retract or correct identified parts of the Annual Report that may be erroneous. 

    The Committee on General Purpose further calls for additional details to be included on the status of major Community Projects such as those under Infrastructure Sector.  The details should inter alia include updates on status, causes for delay and other challenges realized under the Road network, Railway sector and the EAC Master Plan.


    The Committee also observes that the EAC Annual Report 2013/14 contains no section on challenges either than what is mentioned by the Deputy Secretary General of the EAC in his submission to the Committee. 


    "As it has been noted in previous reports tabled before the House, there is apparent hesitation to clearly point out challenges in the EAC Annual Report," Hon Odette Nyiramilimo noted.Each year, the Chairperson of the Council of Ministers submits an Annual Report on the activities and achievements of the Community to key stakeholders in line with Article 49(2) (c) of the Treaty.   


    The Annual Report illustrates the accomplishments of the various Organs and Institutions of the Community within their respective mandates and missions.   The 2013/4 Report captures the progress made in implementation of various activities including the Protocol on establishment of the East African Monetary Union, operationalization of the single Customs Territory, Infrastructure development, productive and social sectors and the progress on the internationalization of the new generation EAC e-Passport.


    At debate, Members called on the Council of Ministers to cause for take up more shares in East African Development Bank (EADB).


    Hon Shyrose Bhanji supported the move for Partner States to take more shares in the EADB. 


    "It is shocking to hear that our partner States have minority shareholding in the Bank.  We are supposed to take advantage of the bank.  What is the problem?  We cannot be seen to transform agriculture which is our backbone through donor funding," she added.


    Hon Dora Byamukama supported the adoption of the Annual Report but said it was necessary for the Assembly to debate on documents that are current. Others who supported the report were Hon Christophe Bazivamo, Hon Nancy Abisai, Hon Bernard Mulengani, Hon Straton Ndikuryayo and Hon Valerie Nyirahabineza.


    The Chairperson of the Council of Ministers, Hon Dr Susan Kolimba affirmed that the Council would make every effort to enhance the quality of its Annual Reports.

    Source: EAC Press




    ...President Museveni Commends Partner States on Regional Centers of Excellence in the Health Sector


    East African Community Headquarters, Kampala, Uganda, 25 March 2015: Uganda's Vice President His Excellency Edward Ssekandi this morning represented HE Yoweri Kaguta Museveni at the official opening of the 5th Annual East African Health and Scientific Conference and International Health Exhibition and Trade Fair at the Kampala Serena Hotel in Uganda.


    In a statement read by his Vice, President Museveni commended the EAC Secretariat and the Partner States for initiating the process of establishing Regional Centers of Excellence (CoEs) in the Health sector namely Nephrology and Urology in the Republic Kenya, Oncology in the Republic of Uganda, Cardiovascular in the United Republic of Tanzania and Biomedical Engineering and eHealth in the Republic of Rwanda.


    He said this initiative will enhance EAC Competitiveness through highly skilled health workforce in biomedical sciences and also enable the East African citizens access quality and specialized services within the region.


    The first phase of the project is expected to cost USD 72.75 million and will be supported by the African Development Bank.  The CoEs are expected to deliver high quality and skilled personnel in the specialized fields and reduce medical tourism, which costs EAC Governments an estimated of USD 150 million annually for treatment of Non-Communicable Diseases abroad.


    At the same occasion, the Deputy Secretary General of the East African Community in charge of the Productive and Social Sectors Hon. Jesca Eriyo, who represented the Secretary General Amb. Dr. Richard Sezibera, informed the delegates that there was strong evidence that an investment in people's health was a key asset for society and for the economy as a whole.


    "As you may be aware, the Health sector is also leading in creating Job opportunities and a driver of innovation and technology" noted Hon. Eriyo, adding that "As such, health systems strengthening have an important role in achieving Millennium Development Goals to ensure sustainable and inclusive growth in the Health Sector and Economy at Large.


    The Deputy Secretary reiterated that the overarching goal of the EAC Health Sector Programme was to establish and sustain stronger regional health systems including health research institution. In this regard, the EAC official informed the delegates that, the Protocol for Establishment of the East African Community Health Research Commission (EACHRC) had been ratified by all the five Partner States and instruments of ratification have already been deposited with the EAC Headquarters.


    She disclosed that the EAC Council of Ministers and the East African Legislative Assembly had already appropriated USD 924,067 in the EAC Budget for the current financial year (FY 2014/2015) to facilitate operationalization of the East African Health Research Commission in the Republic of Burundi.


    Hon. Eriyo also disclosed that the Community had developed scorecard, tools and indicators to track results and resources through the open health initiative (OHI) and that a regional data warehouse for reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, adolescent health and nutrition had been developed and plans were underway to expand and include data for communicable and non-communicable diseases surveillance in order to strengthen integrated approaches for disease prevention, control and management.


    Uganda's Minister of Health, Dr Ellioda Tumwesigye informed the delegates that Uganda was proud to host the conference, which was providing an opportunity and a platform for synthesizing, sharing and dissemination of research findings to inform policy makers and programmers on evidence-based decision-making and mobilization of political will and resources for the Health Sector.


    Burundi's Minister in the office of the President Responsible for EAC Affairs Hon. Leontine Nzeyimana saluted the EAC Partner States for initiating the Annual East African Health and Scientific Conference and International Health Exhibition, and informed the delegates that her country had initiated several measures geared towards mother and child care which includes, among others, free treatment for mothers and children under the age of 5.


    Zanzibar's Minister of Health Hon. Rashid Seif Suleiman said strengthening health care services especially primary health care in the rural areas was very critical in the region and that investing in infrastructure, human resources, diagonistic services in medicine was good but most important of all was how to deliver the health care services to the people in the region.


    Health and Social Welfare Deputy Minister of the United Republic of Tanzania Hon. Dr. Kebwe Stephen Kebwe, who is also the Chairperson of the EAC Sectoral Council of Ministers responsible for Health, informed the conference that globally, 2015 was a special year for the health sector in taking stock of what had been achieved during the MDGs of which 3 goals (MDG 4, 5 and 6) were health related.


    He said the Conference was an opportunity for the region to re-align itself to the post 2015 era with regard to the health sector. "As we review the progress made to date and share experiences in this conference, it is important that we renew our commitment towards enhancing health sector investments, strengthening of health systems and the attainment of Universal Health Coverage in the EAC", affirmed the Chairperson of the EAC Sectoral Council of Ministers responsible for Health.


    He noted that the momentum on regional cooperation had reached a point of no return and the Partner States were working more closely than ever before to improve public health. "Apart from developing robust policies, we are implementing various provisions of the Common Market Protocol which seeks to enhance free movement of people, capital, services and goods across the region, thereby improving the environment for doing business in the health sector and beyond".


    The Conference, themed Investing in Health through strengthening regional health systems, and institutions towards the prevention and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases, is being attended by over 700 stakeholders.

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