East African Legislative Assembly, Arusha, Tanzania: February 4, 2016: EALA yesterday debated and approved the EAC Annual Report 2013/14. The Assembly meanwhile urged the Council of Ministers to ensure further improvements in future subsequent Reports and in all EAC documents by enhancing overall supervision and quality control. This measure is geared towards sustaining high standards in all outputs of the Community.

The debate was preceded by tabling and debate of the Report of the Committee on General Purpose on the EAC Annual Report for 2013/2014.  The report of the GPC followed the consideration of the Annual Report for the year 2013/14.  The Committee Report presented by the Chairperson of the Committee on General Purpose, Hon Dr Odette Nyiramilimo urges the Council of Ministers to make follow up on actions with intention to amend, retract or correct identified parts of the Annual Report that may be erroneous. 

The Committee on General Purpose further calls for additional details to be included on the status of major Community Projects such as those under Infrastructure Sector.  The details should inter alia include updates on status, causes for delay and other challenges realized under the Road network, Railway sector and the EAC Master Plan.


The Committee also observes that the EAC Annual Report 2013/14 contains no section on challenges either than what is mentioned by the Deputy Secretary General of the EAC in his submission to the Committee. 


"As it has been noted in previous reports tabled before the House, there is apparent hesitation to clearly point out challenges in the EAC Annual Report," Hon Odette Nyiramilimo noted.Each year, the Chairperson of the Council of Ministers submits an Annual Report on the activities and achievements of the Community to key stakeholders in line with Article 49(2) (c) of the Treaty.   


The Annual Report illustrates the accomplishments of the various Organs and Institutions of the Community within their respective mandates and missions.   The 2013/4 Report captures the progress made in implementation of various activities including the Protocol on establishment of the East African Monetary Union, operationalization of the single Customs Territory, Infrastructure development, productive and social sectors and the progress on the internationalization of the new generation EAC e-Passport.


At debate, Members called on the Council of Ministers to cause for take up more shares in East African Development Bank (EADB).


Hon Shyrose Bhanji supported the move for Partner States to take more shares in the EADB. 


"It is shocking to hear that our partner States have minority shareholding in the Bank.  We are supposed to take advantage of the bank.  What is the problem?  We cannot be seen to transform agriculture which is our backbone through donor funding," she added.


Hon Dora Byamukama supported the adoption of the Annual Report but said it was necessary for the Assembly to debate on documents that are current. Others who supported the report were Hon Christophe Bazivamo, Hon Nancy Abisai, Hon Bernard Mulengani, Hon Straton Ndikuryayo and Hon Valerie Nyirahabineza.


The Chairperson of the Council of Ministers, Hon Dr Susan Kolimba affirmed that the Council would make every effort to enhance the quality of its Annual Reports.

Source: EAC Press

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  • How Does The Body React To Lack Of Sleep?

    Adults (aged 26-64 years) need at least 7-9 hrs of sleep daily. Sleep deprivation of 18-24 hrs slows down mental and physical responses, and impairs cognition. Not sleeping for more than 48 hrs sleep reduces the number of NK cells of the immune system and spikes BP. Pushing the limit even further induces hallucinations, pain, tremors, glucose intolerance, and disruption of senses. Lack of sleep is associated with dipping alertness, weakening cognitive performance, decreased brain function and activity, and poor attention. This can lower productivity at the workplace, endanger your well-being, and even become a safety hazard.

    How Much Should You Sleep?

    Going by the National Sleep Foundation’s recommendations for an adult between 26 and 64 years, 7 to 9 hours of sleep every day is a good goal. That said, you could get away with 6 hours of sleep, but no less. The average person needs to get some sleep every 17-18 hours. Any longer without sleep and your body starts to show signs of sleep deprivation.1

    The Progressive Decline

    To understand the ramifications of staying up that little bit longer, take a look at what happens to your body with each progressive hour of sleep lost.

    18–24 hours

    This kind of sleep deprivation is fairly common in some professions and even among single parents or working parents who are also primary caregivers for their family.

    Sleep deprivation causes a decline in vigilant attention. Your responses slow down, you tend to make errors, and you take longer to do tasks.2

    According to one study, subjects who had gone 17 to 19 hours without any sleep showed performance on tests not unlike those with blood alcohol levels of 0.05 percent. These sleep-deprived individuals responded as much as 50 percent slower on some tests. Their accuracy of responses also took a hit and was significantly worse than what is associated with people with blood alcohol content (BAC) of 0.05 percent. As the hours without sleep increased, the performance was closer to those with BAC of 0.1 percent.3 The researchers concluded that sleep is a biological necessity to ensure normal brain function, keep you alert, and maintain normal cognitive performance.4

    48 hours

    This kind of extended sleep deprivation is not usual for the average person. Those in emergency services or military forces, for instance, may have to go a few days without sleep.

    Longer periods of sleep deprivation are believed to impact the immune profile of the body, making you more susceptible to diseases. One study investigated this premise in subjects who went 48 hours without sleep. The body’s natural killer cells (a type of lymphocyte or white blood cell) that are a core part of the human immune system were found to be much lower. This decrease with 48 hours of sleep deprivation could be reversed when subjects went through recovery sleep. However, if this level of sleep loss is sustained for longer spells, it could have a bearing on the body’s ability to fight tumors and viruses

    With this kind of sleep deprivation, blood pressure and heart rate also rise, putting you at greater risk of a stroke. As one study showed, sleep deprivation causes the body’s diastolic blood pressure to increase and interfere with the autonomic nervous system’s regulation of the cardiovascular system.6

    Your body tries to compensate by indulging in microsleeps where it effectively “shuts down” for spells of up to a thirty seconds. After each microsleep you return to reality a bit disoriented. This is potentially dangerous if you are driving, handling heavy machinery or hazardous materials, or are in a job that puts people’s lives in your hands. It is impossible to avoid these microsleeps that occur on their own and cannot be consciously overridden by willpower or otherwise.7

    72 hours

    As time progresses, you will see issues with higher mental processes. Motivation becomes a challenge for many. Perception also gets hampered. Hallucinations are also experienced by some people after staying up three days. Others may create false memories in their minds. Your senses (smell, sight, and even touch) get impacted adversely. Tremors and physical aches and pains also start to set in. And all this in addition to the signs you would have seen after earlier stages of sleep deprivation!8

    How Far Can You Push It?

    Chronic deprivation messes with the glucose metabolism of the body. Getting under 6.5 hours of sleep every night on a sustained basis could cause your glucose tolerance to drop by 40 percent. Poor glucose tolerance puts you at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.Those with total sleep deprivation fare even worse as the glucose secretion pattern changes completely compared to those experiencing normal nocturnal sleep.9

    Deprivation also decreases energy expenditure and interferes with your appetite. Researchers found that people experiencing a regular lack of sleep have a higher body mass index (BMI) than those who get their complete recommended rest. Inadequate sleep causes changes to levels of hormones responsible for controlling hunger. Appetite-reducing leptin levels dropped, and appetite-stimulant ghrelin levels were higher in those who got less sleep. Losing that sleep may actually cause you to crave calorie-rich foods, sweets, carbs, and starchy food, putting you at risk of obesity.10

    Sleep deprivation on an ongoing basis can result in long-term ailments and metabolic disorders, costing you time, money, and your health. It may be well worth reorganizing your life so you don’t miss out on this vital restorative time for your body.





    East African Legislative Assembly, Arusha, Tanzania: May 24, 2016: The EAC Secretary General, Hon, Amb Liberat Mfumukeko, this afternoon took Oath of Allegiance as an Ex-Officio of the Assembly as the 6th Meeting of the 4th Session commenced in Arusha, Tanzania this afternoon.


    Hon, Amb Liberat Mfumukeko was sworn in by the Clerk to the Assembly in a brief ceremony witnessed by the Speaker and Members of EALA in line with the Rule 5 of the Rules and Procedures of the Assembly. The Rule 5(4) of the Rules of Procedure say in part that: "No Member can sit or participate in the proceedings of the House until the Oath or Affirmation of Allegiance to the Treaty is taken".

    Rule 5(5) specifically states that "when a Member first attends to take his or her seat other than at the first sitting of a new House, he or she shall be brought to the table by two Members and presented by them to the Speaker who shall then administer the Oath or Affirmation of Allegiance".


    Hon Mfumukeko was ushered in to the House by EALA Members, Hon Isabelle Ndahayo and Hon Hafsa Mossi.  Hon,Amb Mfumukeko was appointed during the February 2016 Summit of EAC Heads of State to replace Hon, Amb Dr Richard Sezibera. Prior to the appointment as Secretary General, Hon. Mfumukeko was the Deputy Secretary General, Finance and Administration at the EAC.


    Hon,Amb Liberat Mfumukeko has over twenty one years' work experience in both private and public sector.  Prior to joining the EAC, Hon Amb Mfumukeko was the Director General of the Burundi Electricity and Water National Company between 2013 to 2015 and President of the Steering Committee of the East African Power Pool. 


    He has served as a Senior Advisor to the President of the Republic of Burundi in charge of Economic Affairs (2012-2013) and as Director General of the Burundi Investment Promotion Authority (2009-2012)


    Hon, Amb  Mfumukeko served as an Economic Expert at the United Nations - UNDP and FAO from 2006 to 2009 and also in various companies in the USA and France including Banque Populaire (France), EDF GDF - Electricite de France (France) and American Express, Mobil Oil, FUBU, Karl Kani (USA).


    Hon, Amb Mfumukeko, who is a Doctoral Studies candidate (Doctoral studies in Business Administration - DBA) at Atlantic University holds a BSC and Masters Degree in Economics (Université Francois Rabelais of Tours - France), and an MBA from Clark University in the USA. He has attended several training programs in Change Management and International Business at Harvard University and at the MIT in USA. 

    Source: EAC PRESS






    East African Legislative Assembly, Arusha, Tanzania: February 2, 2016: The Regional Assembly is urging Partner States to "up their game" in sensitization activities particularly when it comes to the Common Market Protocol in order to raise awareness and showcase benefits to the citizens of the region.


    At the same time, the EALA wants Partner States to adopt a phased implementation of the EAC Common Market by prioritizing aspects that carry quick wins or deliver immediate multiplier effects.  This move shall endear citizens to take advantage of the benefits that shall accrue from the Common Market protocol.


    The Assembly today debated and adopted the Report of an Oversight activity on the Security related challenges of implementing the Common Market Protocol along the Central Corridor.


    The Report presented to the House by the Chair of the Regional Affairs and Conflict Resolution Committee, Hon Abdullah Mwinyi follows the oversight activity undertaken by the Committee in the United Republic of Tanzania in November 2015.


    The activity aimed at appreciating first-hand, the existing security related operational challenges of implementing the Common Market Protocol along the Central Corridor; Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) constraints including numerous police road blocks and check points; and the ongoing reforms and projects on course to ease cargo transportation in landlocked Partner States of Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda. 


    The objective of the Committee was to comprehend and appreciate the implementation of the Common Market Protocol along the Central Corridor and to ascertain the challenges faced in the implementation. 

    The Committee held a field trip visiting Dar es Salaam, all through to Vigwaza weighbridge and roadblocks.  It further interacted with various stakeholders including officials of the Ministry of EAC, Ministry of Labour and Employment and the Tanzania Bureau of Standards (TBS). Others included the Business Community, Members of the Tanzania Police Force and the Tanzania Roads Agency (TANROADS) Officials. 


    The Committee observed that United Republic of Tanzania had developed a national Common Market Protocol implementation strategy and a national Committee to realize the same.   It further strengthened the National Monitoring Committee for Elimination of Non-Tariff barriers and had commenced on the issuance of the machine readable identifications.


    The Committee was nonetheless informed that implementation of the Common Market Protocol continued to lag behind owing to a number of factors including; Inadequate awareness among Private Sector, implementing agencies and the general public on the provisions and implementation of EAC CMP as well as delays by the sectoral Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDA's) to amend national laws relevant to the said Protocol. In addition, the Committee took cognisance of the funding requirements for smooth implementation of the EAC Protocol.


    During debate, Members noted that Partner States should emulate the United Republic of Tanzania to modernize the weighbridge technology and scales to ensure enhanced speed and accuracy in weighing process targeting reduction of bribery incidences, fines for overloading and time taken in the weighing process.   


    At the same time, United Republic of Tanzania should work with other Partner States to re-look on the validity through research the issue of yellow fever cards within the EAC region as an impediment to free movement of persons


    Hon Bernard Mulengani remarked that it was necessary to also look at security related matters such as Illegal roadblocks, arrests and the ever worrying trend of terrorism gaining entry through the free movement of persons.  He further requested the Council of Ministers to clarify on the term foreigner in advent of the Common Market Protocol.


    Hon Valerie Nyirahabineza decried the constant delays by Partner States to amend the national laws to conform to the Common Market Protocol.  "Article 47 requires Partner States to align their legislation to CMP.  This is vital, she said.  What happens if the laws in the Partner States are not aligned with that of the EAC? Are we going to continue to benefit from the Protocol? She asked.


    "In the case of the Customs Union, we have a legal framework in the name of the Customs Union Management Act. It is a high time we have a coordinating structure to handle this aspect," she added.

    Hon Shyrose Bhanji said Tanzania had done well with regards to removal of NTBs. One of the major challenges however is that of lack of sensitization to the public, she said. 


    "This is not only a recurring problem but looks more like a chronic problem," she said.  We need more sensitization to the publics to create awareness here in the country.  Even EALA Members need to be more involved in-country   This shall enable us also to brief Tanzanians and other East Africans," she said.


    Hon Makongoro Nyerere however said the various weighbridges on the central corridor continued to delay the speed of movement of goods.  "They need to be reduced so that we also spur free movement of people from one point to another", he added.


    "Hon Mumbi Ngaru said the Government of Kenya had continued to prioritise sensitization of its citizens on the EAC.  "The Council needs to formulate a policy around sensitization.  This is very key., she said.

    Others who supported the report were Hon Shyrose Bhanji, Hon Makongoro Nyerere, Hon Martin Ngoga and Hon Ussi Maryam.  Hon Odette Nyiamilimo, Hon Isabelle Ndahayo, Hon Christophe Bazivamo and Hon Taslima Twaha also gave a nod to the report.




    Source: EAC Press

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